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2/2011 Top-notch service and support for the giant Customers + Partners Products + Services Global Mission possible Big ambitions MTU sets its eyes on China
Contents Cover Story Top-notch service and support for the giant 6-9 Customers + Partners Japan's high-flying airline Mission possible A power pack for heavy loads 10 - 13 14 - 17 18 - 21 Technology + Science Ways to make a great product even better A huge leap forward on the materials front 22 - 25 26 - 29 Products + Services Big ambitions Soft on the outside, hard on the inside Service in the desert 30 - 33 34 - 37 38 - 41 Global MTU sets its eyes on China 42 - 45 Top-notch service and support for the giant MTU Maintenance has been successful in signing up three customers for the new giant in its product portfolio, the GE90: Air New Zealand, V Australia, and U.S. freight carrier Southern Air. Pages 6 - 9 Report The "elegant" way to fly 46 - 51 In Brief Masthead 52 53
Mission possible Two Eurofighter Typhoons of the Italian Air Force pulled off an amazing performance at Aero India 2011 in Bangalore that wowed thousands of air show visitors, including government officials. India has now put the jet on the final shortlist for the contract for 126 fighter aircraft, the world's biggest defense deal at present. Pages 14 - 17 Big ambitions The GEnx engine powers the Boeing 787 Dreamliner and the new Boeing 747-8. As from January 1, 2012 every GEnx will come with a turbine center frame made by MTU. The necessary production lines in MTU's Munich shops are currently being ramped up--in record time. Pages 30 - 33 MTU sets its eyes on China China is determined to push forward with its sky-high ambitions. Plans are now to build a new engine for the first short- and mediumrange airliner to be made in China, the C919. MTU is looking for ways of contributing its technologies. Pages 42 - 45 The "elegant" way to fly Taken aback by the noise and vibrations he experienced on his first flight in an early 1930s passenger plane, Hans von Ohain developed a novel engine to power the world's first all-jet aircraft. This year, the pioneer would have been 100 years old. Pages 46 - 51
Editorial Dear Readers: To stand still is to move back. That is as true in the fiercely competitive global market for commercial engine maintenance as it is anywhere. We know we cannot afford to stand still; this is why the MTU Maintenance Group is looking to expand its activities in many ways over the coming years, for instance, by adding new engines to our maintenance portfolio. We have succeeded in taking the first, momentous step in this direction: Last year, we obtained the necessary licenses to repair and overhaul the GE90 Growth, thus laying the foundations for our entry into this market. And, less than one year on, we landed a coup by winning contracts with three customers for the maintenance of the world's most powerful engine. With the addition of this heavyweight to our portfolio, we now provide support for propulsion systems across all thrust categories--from small Pratt & Whitney Canada and GE Aviation business-jet engines and extremely popular medium-thrust engines, such as the V2500 and the CFM56, to the giants, the GE90 and GP7000. MTU Maintenance is the only company in the world to offer MRO services for such a wide range of engines, and that's something we can rightly be proud of. Besides broadening our product portfolio and expanding into new market territory, we are pursuing yet another avenue: We want to be in a position to always come up with fresh innovative solutions to make our offerings flexible enough to provide customers with exactly the service they need to keep their fleets in the best operating condition. In this regard, too, the new contracts we have won for the GE90 Growth break new ground: We are working closely with our customers to ensure the contract terms are tailored to suit the individual requirement. That's an approach that benefits the fleet operators, and ultimately ourselves. For, amid all the change in our industry, one thing will stay the same: To remain successful in the long term, you have to keep your focus on the greatest possible customer benefit. Excelling in meeting customers' needs is our mantra. Of course, we will only achieve this by maintaining the highest quality standards and with the full support of extremely innovative and highly motivated employees. They are our asset. Sincerely yours, Dr. Stefan Weingartner Member of the Board of Management, President Commercial Maintenance
Cover Story Top-notch service and support for the giant By Silke Hansen MTU Maintenance has been successful in signing up three customers for the new giant in its product portfolio, the GE90: Air New Zealand, V Australia in the southern hemisphere and U.S. freight carrier Southern Air have opted to have their GE90-110B/-115B engines maintained by MTU Maintenance Hannover under exclusive contracts. The German company will be offering them top-notch service and support.
TU is fully prepared to start work on the huge engine that powers the Boeing 777 family of aircraft, and has been licensed to perform the maintenance, repair and overhaul (MRO) work of the two Growth versions--the GE90-110B and the GE90-115B--since 2010," notes Dr. Stefan Weingartner, MTU Aero Engines' President, Commercial Maintenance. The maintenance agreements now signed mean much more than a welcome vote of confidence; after all, by adding the GE90, Air New Zealand and Southern Air are both expanding their existing partnerships with MTU Maintenance. New Zealand's flag carrier concluded an exclusive MRO agreement with MTU Maintenance Hannover for its entire fleet of CF6-80C2 engines in 2007. By entrusting MTU with the maintenance of the 12 GE90-115B engines that power its new Boeing 777-300ER aircraft, the airline knows that it will place them in the best hands. Andrew Hewitt, Power Plant Manager at Air New Zealand: "Based on our existing MRO contract with MTU, we are confident they will continue to perform and deliver us an excellent service. The GE90-115B MRO agreement represents a significant 12-year investment for Air New Zealand."
Cover Story Air New Zealand was the first airline to entrust MTU Maintenance with the support of its GE90-115B engines. Frank Haberkamp, Vice President, Marketing & Sales, Asia at MTU Maintenance, says: "Air New Zealand is very satisfied with the job we do on their CF6s. The high quality of our services helps keep engines on wing longer. The airline benefits from our customized service packages and the flexible solutions that we have developed in close cooperation." So why settle for something less than what MTU has to offer? Especially given that the Hannover shop offers the same level of all-round support also for the GE90, which spans the whole gamut from on-site maintenance to AOG (aircraft-on-ground) service, innovative high-tech repair techniques, temporary replacement engines from the lease pool to engine condition monitoring. Haberkamp adds: "Insights we've gained from talking with Air New Zealand led us to explore innovative approaches to find a solution that best fits the customer's needs. The resulting contract contains a flexible mix of powerby-the-hour and time-and-material elements." These arrangements allow the customer to benefit from lower costs and tailor-made MRO service. As the national airline, Air New Zealand operates domestic flights to 27 destinations and offers international flights to airports in Australia, North America, Asia, Europe and the South Pacific. From its hub in Auckland, the airline flies two different routes to London Heathrow--via Los Angeles (daily) and via Hong Kong (five times a week), which makes the 8 South Pacific island nation's carrier an airline that offers a round-the-world service. Given that Boeing's 777-300ER longhaul jet only entered service with Air New Zealand's fleet in December 2010, the first major overhaul of a GE90-115B in Hannover is not expected before early 2015. U.S.-based cargo airline Southern Air has been relying on MTU's support since 2002, and regularly sends CF6-50s to the engine shops in Hannover and Vancouver. Says Christoph Heck, Vice President, Marketing & Sales, The Americas: "Now the carrier adds eight GE90-110Bs, and this number could increase to 12 if existing purchase options are exercised." Southern Air, an air cargo company that was founded in 1947, currently operates a fleet of 11 Boeing 747 freighters and two new Boeing 777s, and has another two 777s scheduled for delivery next year. The airline also plans to acquire additional 747s: initially two, but the number could be increased. Talks with MTU's maintenance specialists on future MRO arrangements are already underway, reports Heck. Southern Air serves customers throughout the world and, last year alone, flew to 267 unique destinations. The successful GE90 engine offers MTU great potential also for the acquisition of new customers, a textbook example being V Australia. Based in Sydney, the airline is a subsidiary of Virgin Australia, part of the Virgin Group of Airlines owned
GE90: Gigantic in every respect General Electric's successful GE90 is one of the engine options for various models of Boeing's twinjet long-haul 777 aircraft (commonly referred to as the "Triple Seven") and the exclusive engine for the 777-200LR (Long Range), the -300ER (Extended Range) and the -200 Freighter. The engine family covers a thrust range from 76,000 to 115,000 pounds. The first variant, a GE90-77B, entered into service in 1995 aboard a 777-200. The two Growth versions, for which MTU Maintenance provides MRO services, are the latest additions to the family. The GE90 Growth is the world's largest and most powerful engine. Its fan diameter, at 3.25 meters, is approximately equal to the diameter of the fuselage of a Boeing 737 (3.76 meters). During tests on GE's outdoor test facility near Peebles, Ohio, a GE90-115B reached a sustained record of 569 kN, or 127,900 lbs, of thrust. In terms of technology, too, the turbofan, which has a bypass ratio of 9:1, is a true heavyweight--a term not to be taken literally, because in fact its aerodynamically optimized fan blades are manufactured from composite materials and reinforced with titanium leading edges, which makes them lighter and more efficient and extends their service life. Debut in MTU Maintenance Hannover's shop: The first GE90 undergoes inspection. by British entrepreneur Richard Branson. It has signed a longterm maintenance agreement with MTU for its GE90-115B engines. The airline flies its fleet of five Boeing 777-300ERs on long-haul flights from Sydney, Melbourne and Brisbane to Los Angeles and Abu Dhabi. The prospects for future growth of MTU's GE90 customer base are excellent. Demand for maintenance services, especially for the latest models, the GE90-110B and -115B, will increase steadily over the coming years. According to Boeing, the manufacturer has logged orders from 46 customers around the world for a total of 665 GE90-115B-powered aircraft, with 279 of these still to be delivered. The 826 engines that have entered revenue service since 2004 have meanwhile accumulated a total of 9.6 million flight hours, during which they have established a departure reliability rate of 99.95 percent: a proven track record that motivates MTU Maintenance all the more to deliver top-notch quality and service. The engines powering the Boeing 777s of U.S. freight carrier Southern Air are also maintained in Hannover. For additional information, contact Leo Koppers +49 511 7806-9105
Customers + Partners
Japan's highflying airline By Andreas Spaeth All Nippon Airways (ANA) carries over 43 million passengers each year, which makes it Japan's largest airline and the tenth-largest in the world. Having started out as a purely domestic carrier, ANA this year celebrates the 25th anniversary of its international debut. ANA's Tokyo-Mumbai route is the most extraordinary one for the airline's Boeing 737s, which make up almost a quarter of its fleet. If you are lucky, you'll experience a bird's eye view of Mount Fuji, at 3,776 meters Japan's highest mountain, on your flight. ore than 6,700 kilometers separate these two cities, and ANA has operated the route since September 2007. The connection is flown by two Boeing 737700ER aircraft in special livery--they are emblazoned with the words "ANA Business Jet" in large blue lettering on a white background. Boeing built this variant of the 737 especially for the Japanese airline; it has a higher maximum takeoff weight, auxiliary fuel tanks, and hence a considerably extended range. With these business jets, which seat only 38 to 44 passengers, ANA serves an important niche market. Founded in 1952, ANA has a fleet of 228 aircraft in total, of which 55 are Boeing 737s. The 737-500s, -700s and -800s are primarily used for domestic flights and operated by its subsidiaries Air Nippon and ANA Wings. Since last year, MTU Maintenance Zhuhai in China has been providing support for the CFM56-3C1 engines powering ANA's Boeing 737-500s. For MTU's maintenance experts the Japanese airline is a key partner: "ANA did us a great service by assisting us in the process of obtaining approval from JCAB, the Japan Civil Aviation Bureau," says Holger Sindemann, President and CEO of MTU Maintenance Zhuhai. "It was a tangible sign of the confidence they have in our abilities. Japan is very important for our location on account of its geographical proximity."
Customers + Partners All Nippon Airways (ANA) is Japan's biggest airline. Among the aircraft it operates also are Boeing 747s. The feeling is mutual: "We appreciate MTU Maintenance Zhuhai's efforts to support ANA's operations by cutting turnaround times as much as possible, so that ANA can avoid a zero spare situation for our Boeing 737 classic fleet," explains Toshifumi Takeuchi, Manager, Power Plant, Material Management & Spares at ANA. "We also appreciate very much the joint effort of MTU Maintenance and ANA on cost reduction for engine overhaul. And we believe that, given MTU's unique position in the engine MRO market, we can expect even more benefit from our long-term cooperation." The Mumbai route could soon be served by a new aircraft type, as ANA will be the first operator of Boeing's new long-haul airliner, the 787 Dreamliner. This jet is considered to be the ideal aircraft for point-to-point flying on medium-density routes. It will enter revenue service with Japan's flag carrier before the end of this year. ANA has ordered a total of 55 of the aircraft and hopes the 787 will drive its 12 ANA is the launch customer for the Mitsubishi Regional Jet.
Engine maintenance, Japanese style The outsourcing of engine maintenance is quite a novelty in Japan, where airlines in the past used to do this work themselves. "MTU Maintenance had compelling arguments to convince ANA of the advantages of buying MRO services 'made in China'. The airline's decision to go with MTU Maintenance was without doubt influenced by the fact that we are an independent provider with strong ties to engine manufacturers," explains Holger Sindemann, President and CEO of MTU Maintenance Zhuhai. "The Japanese are seeking long-term cooperation and have high demands in terms of quality," says Tim Fu, MTU Maintenance Zhuhai's Director, Sales, Asia. "We want to establish a strong customer base in the Japanese market, initially for MTU Zhuhai and in the long term also for the MTU Group." MTU Maintenance sees business opportunities mainly with older engine types: As total demand for maintenance services for them is going down, it becomes uneconomic for airlines to have their own facilities. But there is also potential for business with newer engine types for which airlines do not yet have any capacities of their own. "ANA is currently supporting MTU Maintenance Hannover in gaining approval as an MRO organization from the Japan Civil Aviation Bureau," says Jan Steenbock, Vice President, Marketing & Sales, Far East Asia in Langenhagen. "Impressed by the variety of MTU Maintenance's repair capabilities and technologies, ANA is convinced that we can help them cut costs over the long term and increase the cost-effectiveness of their engines." ANA has the CFM56-3 engines powering its Boeing 737s maintained by MTU Maintenance Zhuhai. international expansion. Using the Dreamliner, ANA will kick off a new regular service between Tokyo Haneda and Frankfurt that will start up in January 2012. Up to now, the majority of the ANA Group's revenue has been generated in its domestic market, where the carrier serves 49 cities with 101 routes. This equates to a market share of around 50 percent and makes ANA the market leader. The international network comprises 28 destinations and 61 routes. From Tokyo Narita ANA currently flies non-stop to four destinations in Europe: London Heathrow, Paris CDG, Frankfurt and Munich. Despite the catastrophic earthquake and tsunami in Japan in March of this year, ANA is still on course for growth and expects to again turn in a profit for the year as a whole. The addition of international services at Tokyo's Haneda airport, which is located conveniently close to the city, is driving business forward, as are new joint ventures with Star Alliance partners such as Lufthansa; the cooperation between these two airlines was the first Asian-European partnership to gain antitrust clearance. ANA will also be launching two low-cost airlines in Japan, both of which will commence operations next year. The dynamic airline has always been an industry trendsetter: It not only is the launch customer for the 787, but also the first airline to have placed an order for the new MRJ regional jet with Japan's Mitsubishi. This aircraft will be powered by the new Pratt & Whitney geared turbofan engine, to which MTU contributes half of the high-pressure compressor and the high-speed low-pressure turbine. Delivery of the 15 MRJ90s ordered by ANA is slated to start in early 2014. For additional information, contact Holger Sindemann +86 756 8687-806
Customers + Partners Mission possible By Martina Vollmuth Within just a month, the Italian Air Force managed to get two Eurofighter Typhoons geared up and ready to take part in a spectacular display at Aero India 2011 in Bangalore. The fighter jets pulled off an amazing performance that wowed 100,000 air show visitors, including key defense ministry officials. India has now put the Eurofighter Typhoon on its final shortlist along with the Rafale for the world's biggest defense deal--the Indian Air Force's acquisition of 126 combat jets. eld once every two years, Aero India is the biggest air show in South Asia. In early February this year, 675 exhibitors from 29 different countries spent five days showcasing their latest products and technologies. This figure included a sizeable national contingent--almost 300 of the exhibitors were from India. "The 8th Aero India was another great opportunity for the Eurofighter Typhoon and its engines to demonstrate their world-class capability," says Michael Schreyögg, Senior Vice President, Defense Programs at MTU Aero Engines in Munich. The German engine manufacturer has a 30-percent stake in the EJ200 engine powering the Eurofighter Typhoon and has put huge efforts into supporting its export activities. The two Italian fighter jets took to the skies above the Bangalore showground twice a day and flew in spectacular formations. All the flights went as planned, and not a single spare part was required by the seven specialists from the Experimental Test Flight Unit team who were responsible for the two aircraft during the air show.
Customers + Partners In top shape: At Aero India 2011, the Italian Air Force's Eurofighter Typhoon jets gave an impressive demonstration of their capabilities.
The two Italian Eurofighter Typhoons were a sight to behold from the moment they left for Bangalore: Accompanied by two Hercules C-130s, they covered a total of some 4,300 kilometers, flying in several stages from their Italian base, the Gioia del Colle Air Base in Apulia, to the Yelahanka Air Force Station in Bangalore. The route included stopovers in Greece, Jordan, Qatar and India. Mechanics were on hand to work on the fighter jets during the trip, with the two Hercules aircraft transporting all their technical gear. Everyone involved in the journey there and back confirmed that the Eurofighter Typhoons gave an impressive demonstration of how easy they are to handle. They were immediately compatible with all the civil and military infrastructure facilities and ground support equipment in the stopover countries. Two reserve aircraft were kept on standby at the Italian homebase, but this backup resource was never actually needed. This outstanding demonstration of operational readiness and flexibility also appears to have impressed the Indian Ministry of Defense (MoD): The Indian Air Force (IAF) has since announced its decision to down-select the Eurofighter Typhoon and the Dassault Rafale for the billion-dollar defense contract which will see India reinforce its security and defense capabilities with 126 new Medium Multi-Role Combat Aircraft (MMRCAs). Based on requirements calculated by the IAF, the Indian MoD issued a request for proposals in 2007 with an order volume of some ten billion U.S. dollars and a scheduled date for the start of deliveries of 2015. "The selection procedure in India is about as challenging as it gets," says Klaus Günther, EJ200 and RB199 Program Director at MTU Aero Engines in Munich. The aircraft and engines must demonstrate consistently stable and reliable performance in extreme geographical locations ranging from desert regions to tropical forests to mountainous terrain--basically encompassing the subcontinent's entire range of topographical features and climate zones. The flight and weapon tests in the preliminary round focused on 643 parameters, and the aircraft that came out on top were the Eurofighter Typhoon and its French competitor, the Rafale. The aircraft that are no longer in the running are the Boeing F/A-18E/F Super Hornet, the Lockheed Martin F-16 IN, the Saab JAS 39 Gripen, and the Rosoboronexport MiG-35. In addition to the MMRCA, an aircraft carrier version of the Eurofighter Typhoon is also a conceivable option for the Indian Navy. This navalized version would require minor adjustments to be made to the aircraft, including localized strengthening in the fuselage for the landing gear and arrestor hook. "We could equip the engine with thrust vectoring control nozzles for this version, which is something we have already successfully tested," says Günther. "That's how we would reduce the aircraft's approach speed and angle of attack for deck landings." As well as insisting on top-notch technical specifications, the IAF will also require the eventual winner of the bidding process to set up a final assembly line in India so that the majority of the fighters can be built in the country under license. Only the first 18 aircraft will be acquired directly from a foreign manufacturer, while the remaining 108 fighters will be built under license by the Indian company Hindustan Aeronautics Ltd. (HAL). In addition, the MMRCA tender includes an economic offset of 50 percent of the order value. If the Indian Air Force does eventually choose the Eurofighter Typhoon, this could potentially lead to the creation of 20,000 new jobs. The final decision on which manufacturer will win the contract is expected to be taken this year. The fact that the Eurofighter Typhoon was chosen as one of the finalists represents a huge success for the Eurofighter Typhoon partners, and Schreyögg notes that it sends a powerful signal to countries that are currently considering acquiring new fighter jets, such as Switzerland, Malaysia, Japan, Bulgaria, Croatia and Turkey. These countries will no doubt be following the latest developments in the Indian tender just as closely as all the companies involved. For additional information, contact Klaus Günther +49 89 1489-3308 The European fighter jets' amazing performance wowed 100,000 air show visitors, including key defense ministry officials.
Customers + Partners A power pack for heavy loads By Bernd Bundschu The GE38 significantly advances the state-of-the-art in large turboshaft engine technology: Compared to its predecessor, the tried and trusted T64, it generates one and a half times the power, burns 18 percent less fuel, and uses fewer than half the number of parts. This power pack has been selected for the U.S. Marine Corps' new CH-53K heavy-lift cargo helicopter. MTU Aero Engines will be supplying the power turbine for the engine, and managed to assemble the first module for use in flight testing within just a few weeks.
n important milestone was reached in the GE38 program at MTU in Munich in late May this year when the first power turbine intended for flight testing of the CH-53K was delivered to the customer, General Electric Aviation. "This is a remarkable achievement, given that we completed the first development module barely 15 months ago," stresses Dr. Robert Bader, GE38 Chief Engineer. "Since then, we've put together another four modules and optimized the design of our components to ensure flight operations are safe." It only took a few short weeks to assemble the first power turbine to go into a flight test engine. "Assembly of the module began in end-March, after a period of intense preparations," explains Program Director Rainer Becker. "It's also thanks to the tremendous flexibility of our development assembly operators and their many years of experience in building prototypes that we were able to meet the delivery date," says Martin Schäffner, who is in charge of engine maintenance, assembly and test stands. GE delivered the first complete GE38 engine to Sikorsky Aircraft in the middle of the year. The airframe manufacturer has an order from the U.S. Marine Corps for 200 CH-53K heavy-lift cargo helicopters, which will be delivered along with 800 GE38-1B engines. MTU is responsible for designing, developing and manufacturing the engine's three-stage power turbine, which delivers 7,500 horsepower (5,595 kW), and its exhaust casing and output shaft. The company's total workshare in the program is 18 percent. Since February 2011, an MTU power turbine has been demonstrating its outstanding capabilities at GE's test facility in Lynn, Massachusetts, where the engine is being subjected to 300 hours of cyclic durability testing. "This test yields valuable information on how robust the design
Customers + Partners A GE38 on General Electric's test stand. of the turbine really is and perhaps also exposes some weaknesses, which will then be remedied by the time certification is obtained," explains Bader. During cyclic durability testing, the turbine will be subjected to the maximum acceptable gas and oil temperatures, to evaluate life consumption, as for instance as a result of thermomechanical fatigue processes. Continues Bader: "If strip inspection after the test does not give rise to any concerns, we've done a pretty good job." Becker expects that initial results will soon be available. The test facility in Lynn is not the only place where GE38 modules can be put through their paces: the U.S. manufacturer operates three engine test cells, and a fourth has been set up at MTU Aero Engines in Munich (see box). MTU's new test stand forms part of wider-ranging plans: "The GE38 is also a potential candidate for the planned European FTH (Future Transport Helicopter), and we want to be able to offer our services as a GE38 system partner to the German Armed Forces, should the customer select it," explains Becker. "Moreover, with the new test cell, we can offer the German Armed Forces a backup test rig for the T64." This is the engine that powers the German Armed Forces' CH-53G helicopters. The power turbine of the GE38 is made by MTU. A power turbine is being carefully prepared for shipment at MTU in Munich.
Ultra-modern test facility MTU has set up a dedicated test facility in Munich, equipped with the latest instrumentation, so it can carry out testing on General Electric's GE38 and T64 turboshaft engines. "The essential feature of a test cell for turboshaft engines is its water brake," explains Wolfgang Duling, who heads testing of military engines at Germany's leading engine manufacturer. This is how it works: The engine shaft drives a bladed wheel mounted in an enclosure filled with water. The desired engine speed is reached by raising or lowering the water level. The new test cell has been undergoing thorough testing and calibrating since September of last year with a T64. "This is a unique opportunity to run over the test rig with a fine tooth comb before we start development testing with the GE38," says Duling. "We'll be fully prepared when the first GE38s arrive for tests." These are set to start before the year is out, when the GE38 has completed a series of tests to judge its resistance against sand, hailstone, ice and water ingestion and bird strike. "The sand tests are particularly important to the customer," says Dr. Robert Bader, MTU's GE38 Chief Engineer. They will establish whether the engine is able to operate safely and for long enough even in extreme conditions. One of the new features of the GE38 is a special design to make it more resistant to sand erosion. New test cell: The GE38 can be put through its paces also at MTU Aero Engines in Munich. In all engine testing activities, depending on the test objectives, test bed personnel will have GE and MTU program staff working alongside them. According to Bader, in terms of test duration, roughly one third of the GE38's total testing will be conducted in Munich: "That's really a significant contribution we are making." Initial ground testing of the engine is planned at Sikorsky for 2012, and the CH-53K powered by GE38 engines is slated to make its maiden flight in February 2013. MTU will be delivering 20 turbines for flight test engines to GE by the end of next year, with production assembly scheduled to commence in 2013. "We're already laying the groundwork for launching assembly operations," says Schäffner. "It hasn't yet been decided whether MTU will be responsible for the maintenance of GE38 components later on," says Becker, "but it's something we're working on." Before the power turbine is packed in the shipping container an MTU employee gives it the final touches. For additional information, contact Rainer Becker +49 89 1489-6986
Technology + Science 22 20
Ways to make a great product even better By Denis Dilba The tests required for the planned approval of the geared turbofan (GTF) in 2013 may still be underway, but work on its successor is already in top gear. Researchers hope that the engine technology demonstrator currently being set up as part of the European Clean Sky research program under the leadership of MTU Aero Engines will provide the basis for the second generation of the engine of the future--and show how fuel burn and emissions can be reduced even further. urrent figures suggest the GTF design will reduce fuel burn by some 15 percent and improve external noise by 50 percent as compared to conventional aircraft engines in the same thrust range: "We are all quite proud of the GTF indeed, and rightly so," says Klaus Stegmaier, Chief Engineer Clean Sky Program at MTU in Munich. And there is certainly no shortage of interested customers: Bombardier has already signed up and will be debuting the GTF in its new CSeries as of 2013, and Mitsubishi and Russian aircraft manufacturer Irkut have selected the engine for the new aircraft they are building. The GTF has also proved to be a popular choice among Airbus A320neo customers, albeit in an enhanced version. "We are obviously delighted with the positive response to the GTF, but we can't afford to be complacent. We have to keep raising the bar," say Stegmaier and Clean Sky Program Manager Peter Taferner. "Ever since we got involved in the EU's Clean Sky research program we have been looking for ways to make a great product even better." The program was initiated to meet the targets defined by the Advisory Council for Aeronautics Research in Europe (ACARE) in 2002, which include halving carbon dioxide and perceived noise emissions by 2020 as compared to the year 2000, as well as cutting nitrogen oxide (Nox) emissions by 80 percent. 23 21
Technology + Science Enhanced engine efficiency is a key factor in achieving cleaner skies because engines burn fuel. That is why the Clean Sky research program also includes the development of five engine technology demonstrators within the Sustainable and Green Engines (SAGE) project. SAGE is one of Clean Sky's six Integrated Technology Demonstrators (ITDs) intended to develop game-changing technological innovations across all areas of aviation. MTU is the leader of the SAGE 4 sub-project: Work on the "second-generation geared turbofan" has been underway since the summer, and the company plans to have the engine demonstrator assembled by mid-2014, ready for testing on the MTU test rig. "What makes this project so challenging is the fact that it combines ambitious fuel and emission reduction targets with a technology readiness level of six, which is basically just short of demonstration in an operational environment," says Stegmaier. The mechanical engineer admits that the project has given him a few grey hairs, but says that SAGE 4 is generally progressing very well. He adds that the basic architecture of the demonstrator draws heavily on the existing, triedand-tested design of the PW1524G engine: "That boosts our chances of succeeding with this project." The latest milestone reached by the SAGE 4 team is Design Review 2, says Stegmaier: "The conceptual design and groundwork have reached their critical phase and will be completed by the end of the year." The next step will be to produce detailed component designs--a tricky task when you are using so many new technologies in a lighter, efficiency-enhanced demonstrator. MTU is therefore working closely with associates such as Swedish engine manufacturer Volvo Aero and Italian company Avio. Volvo is developing a novel turbine exit casing designed to offer benefits such as improved noise reduction, while Avio is working on an enhanced reduction gearbox known as the Fan Drive Gear System. The PurePower® PW1217G will power Mitsubishi's new MRJ.
Clean Sky With an overall budget of 1.6 billion euros, half of which is funded by the EU and half by industry, Clean Sky is the biggest concerted aeronautical research program ever undertaken in Europe. The aim of the initiative is to support the European air transport industry in meeting the ACARE targets for the reduction of fuel consumption, emissions and noise. Clean Sky involves 86 partners from 16 countries working within six areas of research, one of which is Sustainable and Green Engines (SAGE). The program is scheduled to run through 2017. For its new A320neo aircraft family, Airbus relies on the geared turbofan technology. MTU is responsible for the overall coordination of the project and for the low-pressure turbine and high-pressure compressor, the company's flagship products. One of MTU's tasks is to produce parts such as turbine vanes and casing components by means of selective laser melting (SLM), an additive manufacturing process. This novel technique makes it possible to achieve optimized aeromechanical designs in a significantly shorter timeframe while also reducing production waste. Efforts are also focusing on new materials such as titanium aluminide, and the team is additionally hoping to reduce weight and cut fuel burn by using inner rings made from lightweight and stable fiber-reinforced materials. Taferner explains how cooperation under the Clean Sky program works: "The ITD leaders responsible for the individual core technology areas define special work packages which are then awarded to other partners through calls for proposals (CfPs). The partners thus found have to invest some of their own money in developing the technology, so you have to define tasks that produce a win-win situation--and of course find partners who have the necessary expertise." The tendering process and selection procedures are managed and overseen by the Clean Sky Joint Undertaking, a management body set up for the program in Brussels. A good example of such a work package is the development of an innovative forging technology for titanium aluminide. "The Austrian company Böhler Schmiedetechnik, which is gaining a competitive edge in the technology required to produce forged parts from lightweight titanium aluminide, is supplying MTU with high-end forged parts at no charge which we can use for testing, processing and validation in the demonstrator," says Taferner, who is also responsible for international technology cooperation projects at MTU. Other organizations that have already got involved include Cobham Composites, a British company specializing in composite products, Technische Universität München, and GFE, a manufacturer of high-performance metals and materials. "Once all the CfPs are completed we will have some 20 to 30 partners on board," says Taferner. "The key to success is tight coordination and a good team spirit." All parties involved will be expected to put their very best effort into ensuring that the engine demonstrator is ready to show what it is capable of in 2014: "Plenty of work still lies ahead of us, including component and rig tests to investigate mechanical and aerodynamic properties and the conversion of a GTF prototype engine from the Bombardier CSeries family which Pratt & Whitney will be making available to us at the end of 2012," notes Stegmaier, who is very much looking forward to the next stages of the project. "Ultimately, Clean Sky will enable us to make another technological leap--that's the greatest asset we will gain from this." For additional information, contact Klaus Stegmaier +49 89 1489-5584
Technology + Science
A huge leap forward on the materials front By Denis Dilba A game-changing advance in technology, Computational Materials Engineering (CME) allows materials to be developed much faster and in a more targeted way than before. "This computer-aided simulation technique will halve development times at MTU Aero Engines, bringing about a major reduction in time to market," says Dr. Jörg Eßlinger, Director, Materials Engineering at Germany's leading engine manufacturer. And that is just one of the advantages of CME. ngine manufacturing, with its exacting quality requirements especially as regards safety-critical aspects, is an area where it can take the better part of a decade to develop materials, from coming up with the idea for a new alloy to maturing it for production use. Among the most time-consuming parts of this process are the optimization cycles required to produce and characterize the material and process variants under consideration until a material is found that meets all cost and quality criteria. At times it is little more than a process of trial and error, "albeit at an exceptionally high level," says MTU's chief materials engineer. "Unfortunately, we can never be entirely sure whether the desired results are brought about by adding this or that percentage of tantalum, molybdenum or cobalt to a material, or by slightly modifying the heat treatment of the material, until several weeks later, once all the relevant testing has been completed." Since the first attempt rarely hits the bull's eye and is unlikely to deliver the optimum result, the whole exercise must be repeated and refined again and again. But this is set to change, as now--with the aid of computers--it is possible to tailor materials, production processes and components to precisely meet requirements.
Technology + Science This relatively new area of research has emerged from a combination of basic science with conventional materials engineering. For a long time, these methods could not be applied to materials research because of the extreme complexity of the processes that must be simulated. But now computers are much more powerful, computational methods have been refined, and there is a better understanding of the phenomena at atomic level, according to Eßlinger. "With CME we can tell in advance what effects new chemical constituents or a particular set of production parameters will have on an alloy's microstructure, and hence on its mechanical strength." In Eßlinger's view, CME will be become an indispensable tool in the development of materials, considering the exacting requirements emerging engines will have to satisfy. "Things are bound to get more complex." More efficient engines, which will have to operate at even higher temperatures than those in service today, call for novel, advanced high-performance materials. "Each engine stage will in future be manufactured using the material that is best suited for the job," predicts Dr. Andreas FischersworringBunk, a structural mechanics engineer at MTU. But for this to become a reality the materials development expenditure must be brought down. CME is a great help, as it permits a computer-based preselection of the most promising material variants, which are then produced in the conventional manner. "The alloys thus selected are much more likely to be suitable for the intended purpose, which means we have fewer development iterations to go through," says Thomas Göhler, who is writing his doctoral thesis at MTU. A better understanding of materials allows completely new alloys to be developed more quickly and also permits existing ones to be optimized. "What's more, CME offers added precision in calculating the safe service life of components," says Fischersworring-Bunk. Overall, the CME approach helps improve the high-temperature resistance and mechanical strength of components while at the same time reducing their weight. "And all this at lower development costs." CME will save time and money in other areas, too. Göhler explains that a rhenium-free nickel-base alloy is being developed at present. This costly alloy constituent accounts for only three percent of a conventional turbine blade 100 90 GammaPrime Volume Fraction (%) 80 70 Ti/wt% 60 50 40 2 30 20 1 7 6 Al/wt% 5 4 2 Boundery Condition: Temperature 1050 °C 4 3 5 Ta/wt% 7 6 10 Thermodynamic equilibrium: The stable volume share of the precipitates which is decisive for the material's strength is predicted based on the Al, Ta and Ti content. Ti/wt% 1 7 6 Al/wt% 5 4 2 4 3 5 Ta/wt% Intersection volume between two working points Improved by simulation: After an analysis of various temperature points the parameter range can be restricted and the optimum material composition can be found.
The precipitates are clearly visible under the scanning electron microscope at 20,000X magnification. Actual microstructures are quantified by means of digital image processing and compared with the simulation (red = contour data, blue = surface area). material, but for fully ten percent of its price. Without CME, the expenditure required to replace this expensive transition metal would be prohibitive. MTU engineers are also using CME to optimize the heat input generated by linear friction welding and to assess pores in cast parts. "It allows us to evaluate more quickly where pores are tolerable and where they aren't, and to determine how and where exactly they occur," adds Dr. Wilfried Smarsly, Representative, Advanced Materials at MTU. "That gives us significantly more flexibility in production and design, and increases yield rates." According to Eßlinger, CME would also be an ideally suited tool for the additive manufacturing technologies that are now emerging: "Here, the problem to solve is to define the ranges in which the manufacturing parameters for the individual additive processes are allowed to vary." This determines whether the desired level of component quality can be achieved in the first place and, if so, what the optimum parameter values are to achieve low manufacturing costs and high quality. With the help of the new simulation technique, it will be possible to judge the potential of these additive processes more accurately. More- over, CME will allow processes suitable for the manufacture of components to be finetuned in terms of buildup time and energy input required. MTU is working together with universities on many topics associated with CME. In the assessment of pores, for example, the company cooperates with Technische Universität München. Prof. Dr.-Ing. Heike Emmerich, who holds the chair for material and process simulations at the University of Bayreuth, is contributing to the work on a rhenium-free single-crystal alloy. She is convinced that CME will in the long term also permit inverse material design. "That's where you start with the desired material properties and tailor the appropriate material to them on the computer." But things have not got quite that far yet. "Our current top priority is to learn and develop our capabilities, with research as a central element," says Eßlinger, who is certain that "CME will soon be a tool we cannot afford to do without." He expects CME to become accepted as standard industry practice within five to ten years. This should please customers, since "it gives them engines that are optimized down to the last detail, burn less fuel, and meet higher performance demands." Working shoulder to shoulder: Metallurgists and materials developers are jointly analyzing the material. For additional information, contact Dr. Jörg Eßlinger +49 89 1489-4691
Products + Services Big ambitions By Bernd Bundschu January 1, 2012 is set to be a landmark date for MTU Aero Engines: It is the day on which the engine manufacturer will take on full responsibility for a key component of the GEnx engine for the Boeing 787 Dreamliner and the new Boeing 747-8. From that day forward, every engine of this type will come with a turbine center frame (TCF) made in Munich. The necessary production line at MTU's Munich plant is currently being ramped up--in record time. etting a project of such magnitude up and running in not even half a year--that's never been done before at MTU," remarks a delighted Wolfgang Hiereth, Director, GE Programs in Munich. The engine specialists reached a major milestone on August 24 this year, when they handed over their first TCF to a delegation of senior General Electric (GE) executives in the traditional last-bolt ceremony. Production is scheduled to be up to full capacity by the end of the year, by which time the production line will be manufacturing and delivering one complete module each day. "Even here at MTU, hardly any of us really believed that such a swift ramp-up would be possible," comments Hiereth proudly. "All of the employees and departments involved did an amazing job; the ramp-up was a demonstration of perfect teamwork." The final preparations for full-capacity assembly operations are now under way. "We're well on track, and will be able to meet our delivery commitments," reports Hiereth. The results of an MTU audit conducted by Boeing in September were highly satisfactory, too, and the airframer has every confidence in the company's reliability. General Electric will start deliveries to Boeing of the first GEnx engines equipped with the new MTU turbine center frame at the end of 2011. The TCF is the transition duct between the high-pressure and lowpressure turbines, and as such is exposed to extremely harsh operating conditions. Its function is to route the flow of hot gases exiting the high-pressure turbine at a temperature of more than 1,000 degrees Celsius past numerous structural components and tubes toward the low-pressure turbine, keeping aerodynamic losses at a minimum. The
Products + Services The Boeing 747-8F is powered by GEnx engines. MTU contributes the turbine center frame to this new GE engine. TCF for the GEnx engine was originally developed by GE and subsequently modified by MTU when the German company joined the program in late 2008 and took over responsibility for this module. As Hiereth explains: "From the outside, the MTU-designed TCF looks exactly like the original GE version, but on the inside it's completely different. One of the things we did was to optimize the walls of the hot-gas duct, which makes huge demands on the manufacturing process due to its complex, three-dimensional geometry. We also managed to reduce the module's weight by optimizing its design." GE was impressed by and highly appreciative of the design changes undertaken by MTU. 32 The main component of the TCF is the hub-strut-case (HSC) module, which consists of a hub, twelve struts and the case. To save weight, the walls of these parts are very thin, but they must nevertheless be strong enough to withstand the high mechanical and thermal loads resulting from the difference in temperature between the ambient air and the engine gases. The engineers' solution to this challenge was to manufacture the entire case, down to the very last bolt, using Inconel, a ductile and extremely heat-resistant chrome-nickel alloy. "It is a material that demands a highly precise machining process," notes Franz Keller, Foreman, Hub-Strut-Case Production.
MTU started to draw up plans for its innovative hub-strutcase production line in 2008, and commenced installation work on the new production facility, which covers a surface area of 1,100 square meters, in 2010. "The concept called for new machines, new tools, and a completely new processing strategy," recalls Keller. Working hand in hand with the machine-tool manufacturer, the team developed an ultramodern, customized, flexible manufacturing system capable of processing components with a diameter of up to 1,300 millimeter. The 30-meter-long production line features combined turning, milling and grinding machines with integrated part and tool measuring systems, automated part feeding, a large tool magazine, and a transfer line with a buffer capacity that allows up to twelve workpieces to be lined up for processing in the vicinity of the workstation. "Working three continuous eight-hour shifts, 24 operators will be producing 240 HSC modules per year," says Keller. To shield the HSC modules from the heat of the gases flowing through them, all inner surfaces are provided with the so-called flowpath hardware (FPH). Peter Dirr, Director, Airfoils and Flowpath Hardware, explains that "the protection consists of a fairing, an inner and an outer panel, and we need twelve of each of these." The flowpath hardware is cast in MAR 247, a nickel-based alloy with excellent high-temperature and hot-gas corrosion resistance. MTU has set up an innovative FPH production line, too, based on a novel concept including automated part and tool feeding and an integrated tool and workpiece measurement system that ensures close to zero deviation from specifications. The results of initial test runs confirm its accuracy. Dirr reports: "Out of the 300 to 350 part dimensions inspected, only two or three deviated by a hundredth from the specified value. With results like these, we will be able to significantly reduce production costs." The two new production lines will ensure a maximum of efficiency, process stability and component quality, and also help to shorten turnaround times. Hiereth notes: "As a result of continuous improvements to the processes, we've been able to comply with the specified schedule requirements and will continue to work toward further streamlining our processes and cutting manufacturing cycle times." The turbine center frames will be assembled on a newly installed, takt-based, moving production line consisting of seven stations and a pre-assembly area. This automated assembly line was yet another foray into new territory for the engine experts in Munich, and promises to augment the efficiency of TCF assembly, according to Hiereth. Training of the assembly-line operators has already been completed. MTU CEO Egon Behle (left) and GEnx Product Manager Tom Walker, GE, at the last bolt ceremony at MTU in Munich. For additional information, contact Wolfgang Hiereth +49 89 1489-3501 MTU has ramped up the TCF production line in record time.
Products + Services Soft on the outside, hard on the inside By Daniel Hautmann The cloud looked harmless enough, so the pilots of the Boeing 747-400 decided to fly straight through it. Only when the four engines failed and the aircraft began to lose height did they realize their mistake. After several attempts, the engines finally sprang back into life, enabling the pilots to make a safe landing. But what exactly had happened? The Boeing had strayed into a cloud of volcanic ash and the sharp-edged ash particles had played havoc with its engines, especially the blades. To prevent that from happening in the future, MTU has developed a new coating. ramatic events such as those recorded on the flight from Amsterdam to Anchorage may be rare, but volcanic ash and other abrasive substances--especially sand, salt and ice--do regularly cause problems. Their effect, which is similar to rough sandpaper, causes rapid engine wear, with the blades of the high-pressure compressor affected particularly badly. Material is eroded from the pressure side, cracks appear, and the trailing edge is sharpened like a knife. "It's as if you'd been sandblasting for hours," says Christoph Heck, Vice President, Marketing & Sales, The Americas at MTU Maintenance Hannover. The result is often a drastic reduction in maintenance intervals--which drives costs sky-high. And, as if that weren't enough, the abrasive effect also alters the geometry of the blades, leading to efficiency losses, increased fuel consumption and higher CO2 emissions.
Products + Services To help remedy this situation, MTU Aero Engines has come up with ERCoatnt, a new special protective coating which makes the blades and vanes of the high-pressure compressor more resistant to wear. The coating is applied by physical vapor deposition (PVD). A high-power arc evaporates and ionizes the coating material, and the metal vapor condenses on the blades as a microscopic thin film. The process can be controlled by adding reactive gases to "tailor the film's properties nanolayer by nanolayer", as PVD technology process engineer Wolfgang Eichmann explains. The ERCoatnt process involves vapor deposition of more than just one material. "You need at least one ceramic and one metallic layer," says Dr. Thomas Uihlein, the overall project manager. The ceramic layer supplies the necessary hardness, but would chip and flake off if left exposed to the impact of grains of sand traveling at 1,000 kilometers per hour. That is why engineers add an impact-absorbing metallic layer, explains Uihlein: "That's what enables us to achieve high ductility." Depending on the component, coatings may be vapor-deposited one after the other on an alternating basis. A beneficial sideeffect is the fact that the blades become more resilient to the vibrations that occur during flight. As Uihlein ex- Volcanic ash In April 2010, the Icelandic volcano Eyjafjallajökull began an eruption that went on for several weeks. Large parts of Europe's airspace were closed to air traffic as a result--and for good reason: Volcanic ash reduces visibility and can potentially cause engine failure. Unlike sand, volcanic ash contains glass-like particles. These particles shatter, which reduces their impact energy but increases their abrasive effect. "We got hold of some of the ash and analyzed it," says Dr. Thomas Uihlein. The results showed that ERCoatnt can help: "The protection our coatings provide against volcanic ash in the compressor is at least as good as the protection they offer against sand." Nevertheless, given the risk of damage to the engine and airframe pilots are advised to avoid flying through ash whenever the concentration is high. plains, different materials are used depending on the component's base material, with examples including titanium and titanium nitride, or chromium and chromium nitride: "It's important to choose the right material for each application." The idea for the new coating first emerged in 2003. When the first blisks were used, customers asked for these hardto-repair components to be coated with wear-resistant materials to extend their service life. The wars in Afghanistan and Iraq have also shown just how badly aircraft and helicopter engines can be affected by dust and sand. So MTU began developing solutions to tackle this problem. In 2006, MTU was approached by Saudi Arabian Airlines, which runs flights between Medina and Jeddah. The short flights they are operating in sandstorm-prone desert areas--with numerous take-offs and landings--make highperformance engine materials a must. For test purposes, the German engine specialists installed what are known as "rainbow engines" in some customers' aircraft. These feature uncoated and conventionally coated blades as well as blades with MTU's ERCoatnt protection side-byside in the same stage to allow comparisons to be made. In the case of Saudi Arabian Airlines' V2500-D5-powered MD-90 aircraft, the engines were dismantled in 2010, after two years of service and some 3,500 flying hours, and painstakingly examined. Bernd Kriegl, a Munichbased expert in engine repairs, explains what they found: "All the blades and vanes coated with MTU's ERCoatnt were still serviceable or repairable, while all the other blades were heavily eroded and no longer in a repairable condition. The results showed us that multilayer coatings perform much better," he adds. The use of ERCoatnt makes particular sense in the light of increasing air traffic in the Middle East, North Africa and parts of Asia, where deserts are expanding and where sand can climb to heights of up to 15 kilometers. "The Uncoated and coated compressor blades of a V2500 engine in service with Saudi Arabian Airlines after two years of flight operations. The right-hand blade features MTU's erosion protection coating.
Good, better, best: Compressor blades from a CF6-80: uncoated, with conventional coating and with MTU's erosion protection coating (from left). MTU-coated blades suffer minimal wear in service, so the high-pressure compressor will keep performing in its optimum range for longer. That increases engine efficiency, cuts fuel consumption and reduces CO2 emissions. It also means that the blades are maintained in a condition where they can still be repaired rather than having to be replaced," says Christoph Heck. With the emissions trading scheme due to come into force next year, technologies that help save fuel--such as the MTU-developed coating process--are in great demand. Ultimately, the novel coating offers the potential to ensure optimum blade performance for all airlines--not just those whose aircraft are constantly flying through sandstorms. Components with ERCoatnt have so far notched up a total of 15,000 flight hours. Extended approval for used and repaired blades is already well on track, with approval for the CF6-80 expected to be granted before the end of this year and that for the CFM56 and V2500 to follow in 2012. Perhaps that will go some way to reducing people's fear of sandstorms and clouds of volcanic ash. Wear-resistant coatings allow military aircraft and helicopters to remain in service for longer periods, particularly in hot and sandy regions. For additional information, contact: Dr. Thomas Uihlein +49 89 1489-3812
Products + Services Service in the desert By Bernd Bundschu Turkmenistan is pinning its hopes on a golden future--hard to imagine for a country that is mostly desert. Yet treasure lies beneath the sands in the form of huge deposits of oil and natural gas. The Dauletabad field in the south of the country is one of the world's largest gas fields. Western technology has been brought in to help the country exploit these natural resources. Among the equipment are three LM2500 DLE units. MTU Maintenance Berlin-Brandenburg is responsible for maintaining these industrial gas turbines (IGTs). TurkmenGas operates three LM2500 DLE industrial gas turbines at its "Dauletabad-2" compressor station.
urkmenistan is the most southern of the Central Asian nations. A former Soviet state which gained its independence in 1991, it borders Kazakhstan, Uzbekistan, Afghanistan, Iran and--across the Caspian Sea--Azerbaijan. Turkmenistan is slightly larger than the state of California in the U.S., but only has around 4.8 million inhabitants. Most of the country's income comes from its energy exports, with Turkmenistan featuring among the world's top 12 gas producers and top six gas exporters. Turkmenistan has also been discussed as a possible gas supplier for the European Nabucco project, the planned alternative gas route to the Russian South Stream pipeline. The Dauletabad gas field is situated some 400 kilometers to the south-east of the capital city of Ashgabat in Ahal Province near the borders with Iran and Afghanistan. It is named after the nearest settlement just across the border in Iran. The size of the natural gas field is estimated at some 710 billion cubic meters. The field was first discovered in 1974. State-owned company Turkmen Gas began exploiting the vast gas resources eight years later. Some of Dauletabad's gas makes its way to Turkmenistan's neighbor Iran, and also to Europe via Russia. Before the gas can be transported through the pipeline it has to be compressed. This is accomplished by a number of compressor stations along the pipeline route. The "Dauletabad-2" station contains three gas compressors, each of which is powered by an LM2500 DLE gas turbine. The General Electric LM2500 DLE is a derivative of the CF6-6 aircraft engine. It has a 16-stage compressor, an annular combustor and a twostage high-pressure turbine. The downstream free power turbine boasts high levels of efficiency, and the exhaust gas from the variants equipped with a Dry Low Emissions (DLE) combustion system is remarkably clean. The LM2500 is the most widely used gas turbine in the 20- to 25-megawatt class and has been included in MTU's maintenance portfolio since 1981. "Our first contact with TurkmenGas was back in 2005," recalls Ralf Kansok, Sales Manager, Africa, Turkey, Central Asia & Brazil and the person responsible for the For overhaul the IGT heavyweights are shipped from the Turkmen desert to MTU Maintenance Berlin-Brandenburg.
Products + Services project at MTU Maintenance Berlin-Brandenburg. The company has signed contracts worth a total of some eight million U.S. dollars. "The agreement requires us to perform inspections and minor on-site repairs and to overhaul the three LM2500 DLE gas turbines." The maintenance work is carried out at MTU Maintenance BerlinBrandenburg in Ludwigsfelde. Two or three MTU service engineers remove the complete gas turbines in Dauletabad and ship them to Germany. Once the units have been overhauled, they are reinstalled in the compressor station and put back into operation. The overhaul includes DLE mapping services to increase fuel efficiency and reduce emissions. But before the MTU service engineers can get down to work on site in Dauletabad, several weeks of preparations are needed to complete the formalities. The journey of some 4,000 kilometers to travel to Turkmenistan is far from easy. MTU's team starts by taking a plane from Berlin to Ashgabat via Istanbul, a flight time of some six hours. After a night in a hotel, they set off the next morning on a six-hour car journey heading south-east along the Turkmenistan-Iran border until they reach an encampment in the middle of the desert, which will be their home for nearly two weeks. One person who is always on the team is project manager Ralf Kansok, who is familiar with the local circumstances. "Communication is always a tough one on this project," says Stephen Naumann, Senior Manager, Field Service at MTU Maintenance. "If you don't speak Russian or have an interpreter then you're stuck. And what makes things worse is that Russian and Turkmen are two different languages." Outside Ashgabat, rural life poses some significant challenges. Europeans struggle to get used to the food and accommodation, and some of the MTU employees have already experienced health problems as a result of the poor hygiene standards. Getting to grips with local formal procedures and decision-making processes, too, is a challenge. Says Kansok: "It's a tedious process which-- from the signing of the contract, through the necessary approvals by a myriad of local agencies, authorities and ministries--takes months, if not years before you have a legally binding services agreement in hand. Unfortunately, pending the finalization of the contract, activities are put on ice, even if the work is urgently needed to keep the gas compressor in serviceable condition." During the MTU employees' three-week field service assignment in July this year, two of the three LM2500s were successfully recommissioned. "This marked a key milestone for the project as a whole," according to Kansok. "We were not at all sure if we could get the installations up and running again, given that one of the gas turbines had been out of operation for fully a year, and the other even for three years. Now the third LM2500 DLE, which was long due for major overhaul, too, could be removed and prepared for shipment to Ludwigsfelde." The operating conditions for gas turbines in Turkmenistan are harsh, Two or three MTU service engineers remove the complete gas turbines in Dauletabad and accompany them to Germany. The experts also supervise reinstallation.
The LM2500 gas turbines are disassembled and overhauled in MTU's Ludwigsfelde shop. MTU Maintenance Berlin-Brandenburg is MTU's center of excellence for IGTs. with cold, damp winters and extremely hot, dry summers when temperatures can reach 50 degrees Celsius. The situation is exacerbated by the fine desert sand that accelerates wear and regularly blocks up the air filters. If something goes wrong with one of the IGTs, the only solution in most cases is improvisation and patience, because getting hold of spare parts locally is virtually impossible. "Neither the local operator nor the TurkmenGas headquarters in Ashgabat have the necessary authority to procure parts," says Kansok. "Throw in the fact that there is no roaming partner for European cell phones and only sporadic Internet access, and you see that satellite phones are pretty much the only reliable alternative. To make things even more difficult, none of the major international parcel services will deliver to Turkmenistan." All this results in a permanent shortage of spare parts. Nevertheless, Kansok thinks the situation is improving in Turkmenistan and that plenty of things are changing for the better: "Since 2006, when a currency reform took place, we've seen some improvements in infrastructure plus a big drop in the number of security checks all across the country." In view of the steady increase in energy exports, Kansok feels that the Central Asian country remains an interesting growth market, especially for MTU Maintenance. "Turkmenistan is already in the process of building or planning several new compressor stations equipped with LM2500s for the Dauletabad field." For additional information, contact Ralf Kansok +49 3378 824-817
Global MTU sets its eyes on China By Martina Vollmuth Breathtaking growth rates, plans underway for 45 new airports, a demand for several thousand aircraft, and 160 billion euros in government funding: The news from China shows the country's determination to push forward with its sky-high ambitions. Plans are now on the table to build a new engine for the first short- and medium-range airliner to be made in China, the C919. MTU is looking for ways of contributing its technologies, and the company's engine experts are busy sounding out opportunities for cooperation.
gon Behle has never had any doubt that China is serious about becoming a technology powerhouse. "The country has the resources and the will to create a powerful aviation industry." MTU Aero Engines' CEO estimates that in the next one to two years a Chinese consortium will be established to develop a competitive engine, and, as Behle emphasizes: "We would like to make a contribution." Working out exactly how this kind of commitment could pan out is the job of an interdisciplinary MTU team led by Dr. Christian Winkler, Director, Business Development, and Klaus Müller, Senior Vice President, Corporate Development. The options range from the development of supplier relationships to collaboration on engine design or setting up a joint venture with Chinese engine manufacturer AVIC Commercial Aircraft Engine Company (ACAE). "We are currently in the process of performing a cycle study together with ACAE, which will enable us to determine what an engine for the C919 must be like," says Winkler. At the same time, discussions are being held to establish the terms of a potential joint venture--Müller envisages a partnership similar to the one MTU has in the maintenance sector with China Southern Airlines--and contact is being made with suppliers. All these steps are being carried out in close consultation with MTU's strategic partner, Pratt & Whitney. Müller and Winkler hope this proactive approach will boost MTU's presence in China. Müller explains: "China is a huge market with breathtaking growth rates and forecasts. We very much want to be a part of that. But we also want to make a contribution toward technological development." Germany's leading engine manufacturer has already successfully established itself as a partner to China Southern Airlines, the country's biggest airline, through MTU Maintenance Zhuhai. In the ten years since it was founded, the engine shop in the Zhuhai Special Economic Zone has developed into the biggest provider of maintenance services for commercial aircraft engines
Global The C919 is the first short- to medium-range jet developed and built in the People's Republic of China. Its maiden flight is scheduled for 2014. The new terminal of Beijing Capital International Airports is the largest building of the world. in China, and is now hoping to become the biggest for the whole of Asia. To boost capacity, the site is now being expanded, with the construction work scheduled for completion next year. Hoping to play an ever-more active role in the country, MTU opened a representative office in Shanghai at the beginning of last year to coordinate all the company's activities in the region. The office is run by Melody Liu and was set up after MTU and ACAE signed an agreement in late 2009 to perform a joint study to explore options of building a domestic aircraft engine industry in China. The aim of the study was to evaluate what structure a local engine company should adopt to be viable and what technologies will be needed for emerging engines to be successful in the Chinese market. Liu is confident that the prospects for success are excellent: "If China could only choose one partner, it would go for Germany--for German precision coupled with Chinese speed is a sure-fire recipe for success." One thing is clear: The envisaged engine to power the C919 is expected to be at least as good as the CFM International Leap-X, which has already been chosen for
the jet. "We want to bring our core competencies to the table--our low-pressure turbine technology and our highpressure compressor expertise," Winkler says. And that might only be the start: MTU is also weighing up the possibility of taking on further work packages, additional modules and system management tasks. Care must be taken to make absolutely sure that everything MTU contributes meets the statutory requirements for export and technology transfer abroad, confirms Winkler. "We are working closely with the Federal Office of Economics and Export Control." For the engine experts from Munich a participation in the C919 engine would create a whole new dimension: Next to the Advanced Regional Jet ARJ21, the Chinese 150-to190-passenger jet is one of the two aircraft that the Chinese are hoping will propel their aviation industry into the major league. The idea is that the C919 should break the existing duopoly of Boeing and Airbus and offer serious competition to the short- and medium-haul A320 and Boeing 737. New aircraft in the narrowbody segment are also being built by Russia (the MS-21) and Canada (the CSeries). Boeing and Airbus are all too aware of China's enormous clout in the marketplace and are watching developments very carefully: The schedule drawn up by the C919 manufacturer, the Commercial Aircraft Corporation of China (COMAC), envisages that the C919's maiden flight will occur in 2014 and that deliveries of the jets will commence just two years later. COMAC plans to produce 50 aircraft a year. The company estimates domestic and foreign demand to be in the region of 2,000 aircraft. China is vigorously pressing ahead with its plans to expand the rest of its aviation sector, too. The government has pledged to invest more than 160 billion euros in a five-year plan that includes building 45 new airports, expanding and modernizing 88 existing airports and relocating a further 20, all by 2015. China's ambitions also extend to the skies: The country aims to increase its present aircraft fleet--including the general aviation sector--from 2,400 to 5,000. For now, that means more aircraft purchases, though in the future this demand could be covered by domestic production. Air traffic in the world's most populous nation is growing at double-digit rates--faster than in any other country--and the prospects are huge: The Civil Aviation Administration of China (CAAC) expects passenger numbers to double over the next five years to between 450 and 500 million. By 2030, it estimates that this number will have risen to some 1.5 billion passengers a year, which would make China the biggest aviation market in the world. Market leader in China: MTU Maintenance Zhuhai maintains V2500 and other engines. For additional information, contact Klaus Müller +49 89 1489-5401
Report The "elegant" way to fly By Achim Figgen Hans von Ohain was taken aback by the noise and vibrations he experienced on his first flight in an early 1930s passenger plane. But his disappointment ultimately led to one of the greatest revolutions ever seen in aviation history: The young physicist plunged into the world of engineering and, with financial support from Ernst Heinkel, developed a novel aircraft engine to power the world's first all-jet aircraft. The jet engine pioneer would have been 100 years old this year. nyone who has ever taken a long flight in an old piston-engine aircraft--particularly in poor weather and at low altitude--will appreciate just how uncomfortable this form of transport must have been. Yet it was still an expensive luxury that few people could afford at the time. One person who did get the chance to experience it was Hans Joachim Pabst von Ohain, who was born on December 14, 1911 in Dessau. He had just turned 20 and was studying physics at the University of Göttingen when he took his first flight in a three-engined Junkers from Cologne to Berlin, but von Ohain was far from impressed: "The propellers made a horrendous noise. The airplane rattled because it had piston engines," he said, conceding that "it was not as romantic as I thought it would be". Romantic inclinations are perhaps the last thing one would expect from an otherwise rationally minded scientist, but von Ohain had also been a member of the university flying club where he had discovered the delights of sailing soundlessly through the air in a glider. He found it hard to accept that commercial flights could not somehow be made as gentle and elegant.
In May 1981, Hans Joachim Pabst von Ohain paid a visit to MTU where Dr. Wolfgang Hansen, MTU's director, quality assurance explained how the HeS-3B was rebuilt.
Report There are only two reconstructions of the world's first fully functional jet engine. They are now exhibited at Deutsches Museum in Munich and the National Air and Space Museum in Washington. In contrast to many of his more theoretically minded colleagues, von Ohain--the son of a noble family from the Belgian town of Ohain who changed their name from "de Pape" to Pabst when they moved to Saxony in the 15th century--was no stranger to the practical sides of life. For one thing, he was the proud owner of an automobile, a prestigious hobby that required him to make regular visits to a mechanic's shop. He soon struck up a friendship with the car mechanic Max Hahn, a relationship that would later prove to be tremendously fruitful. Back then, Göttingen was also the place to be for German aeronautical researchers, playing host to renowned professors such as Ludwig Prandtl and Theodore von Kármán. In 1933, during his seventh semester at university, von Ohain finally began working in The young Hans Joachim Pabst von Ohain. earnest on his idea for a vibration-free aircraft engine. At that time, the piston engine, which used a propeller to move the aircraft forward, was the be-all and end-all of engine design. But the physics student decided to pursue a different route by attempting to obtain thrust from combustion gases produced by mixing compressed air with fuel and igniting them. The idea in itself was nothing new; scientists from several European countries had already toyed with this concept and filed patents. But Hans von Ohain knew nothing of this, and he did not carry out any research into existing literature, as he explained years later: "It is better to rely on your own thoughts and invent everything from scratch. This method gives you a good chance of avoiding the errors that thwart other thinkers."
The HeS-3B featured an axial and a radial compressor, an annular combustor, and a single-stage radial turbine. It is said that this unconventional approach was typical of him throughout his life--as was his ability to always find the right backer for his projects. One example was his doctoral adviser Professor Robert W. Pohl, who quickly recognized "the ease with which he can apply his knowledge of theoretical physics to practical problems" and who encouraged his student to put his ideas for a jet engine into practice. When the preliminary tests performed with the help of Max Hahn in the car repair shop using a simplified engine model proved unsuccessful, it was again Pohl who told von Ohain that he lacked "a substantial knowledge of technology" and would need to seek the support of industry to solve critical issues, particularly his problems with the combustion chamber. Ernst Heinkel (2nd from left) on the test field from which the He 178 took off.
Report The Heinkel He 178 was the world's first all-jet aircraft. Messerschmitt or BMW would have been the logical place to start, but von Ohain made a different choice that at first glance seemed a strange one: He decided to take a gamble on the Heinkel aircraft works in Rostock. The owner, Ernst Heinkel, who was considered to be slightly mad, was obsessed with speed, very wealthy, and owned a company that had never before had anything to do with engine design. But in von Ohain's mind, this was the perfect choice, because he feared that a manufacturer of piston engines would reject his revolutionary ideas, which so far only existed on paper. The decision turned out to be a good one: On March 3, 1936, Professor Pohl wrote a letter of recommendation to Heinkel, who met up with von Ohain for the first time just 15 days later. The two men signed a contract on April 3, and von Ohain's capable colleague Max Hahn was taken on board at the same time. Heinkel had eagerly taken the bait and provided the young Dr. von Ohain--he had completed his Ph.D. in physics in 1935--with all the financial and staffing support he needed, thereby giving him a critical edge over his British counterpart Frank Whittle, whose ideas had met with a remarkable lack of interest. So it was that the German test pilot Erich Warsitz became the first person to fly a jet-engined aircraft on August 27, 1939 with the successful maiden flight of a purpose-built Heinkel He 178 equipped with an HeS-3B jet engine--almost two years before the British Gloster E.28/39 with its Whittle W.1 engine finally embarked on its first flight on May 15, 1941. With typical modesty--even his future parents-in-law did not know their daughter was engaged to marry the inventor of the jet engine until the actual wedding--von Ohain always insisted that he could never have implemented his designs without the help of people such as Ernst Heinkel and Max Hahn. Yet it seems likely that an equally important factor on top of his extraordinary technical expertise was his personality: Friendly and engaging, von Ohain motivated his colleagues and staff to excel at what they did and secured all the support he needed to further his own work. This was just as true during 50 his time at the University of Göttingen and at Heinkel as it was during his subsequent work in the United States. After World War II, von Ohain was brought to the U.S. by 'Operation Paperclip' together with many other key German researchers. He spent many years working as a scientist at various U.S. Air Force research institutes in Ohio. After retiring, he became a professor at Peter Pletschacher, Josef Hareiner, Dr. Walter Rathjen and Dr. Wolfgang Hansen (from left) accompany Ohain and his wife on a company tour of MTU's Munich facility.
Hans Joachim Pabst von Ohain 1911 Hans Joachim Pabst von Ohain is born on December 14 in Dessau. 1936 First meeting with Ernst Heinkel on March 18. 1937 The HeS-1 experimental engine is tested for the first time--using hydrogen fuel. 1939 August 27 marks the maiden flight of the first aircraft with a jet engine: the He 178 powered by the HeS-3B. 1941 March 30 sees the maiden flight of the He 280 fighter jet prototype powered by two HeS-8 engines. 1947 von Ohain is taken to the U.S. as part of Operation Paperclip where he starts work for the U.S. Air Force as a scientist at Wright Field (known as Wright-Patterson Air Force Base since 1948). 1949 Marries Hanny Schukat in November. 1963 Appointed chief scientist of the Aerospace Research Laboratory at Wright-Patterson Air Force Base. 1975 Becomes chief scientist of the Air Force Aero Propulsion Laboratory. 1979 After retiring, serves as a professor at the University of Dayton Research Institute. 1998 Hans Joachim Pabst von Ohain dies in Melbourne, Florida, on March 13. Two aviation pioneers: On October 26, 1979 Sir Frank Whittle (2nd from left) and Dr. Hans Joachim Pabst von Ohain (2nd from right) met in Washington. the University of Dayton, to some extent fulfilling a dream he had harbored in his earlier years of becoming a tenured professor at a German university. "Hans von Ohain is a great example of German innovation and engineering skills which continue to enjoy an outstanding reputation all over the world," enthuses Dr. Rainer Martens, Chief Operating Officer at MTU Aero Engines. Germany's leading engine manufacturer sees itself as part of this tradition and keeps the flame of von Ohain's legacy alive: In the late 1970s and early 1980s MTU produced two reconstructions of the He S 3B, the world's first fully functional jet engine, with the support of the pioneer himself. They are now exhibited at Deutsches Museum in Munich and the National Air and Space Museum in Washington. The engine industry has since become a global business and, as Martens emphasizes, it remains a genuinely high-tech segment that offers solid and secure employment to many thousands of people across Germany--in no small measure thanks to the foundations von Ohain laid. "We are obviously proud of 'our' Hans von Ohain," he adds. With his background in physics, von Ohain essentially came to the industry as an outsider, and Martens has long pondered the question of whether someone like him would nowadays have any chance of ending up as an engine designer. As MTU's chief operating officer notes, there is an ongoing need for engineers with a thorough grounding in theoretical science, "and there is no reason they couldn't be physicists." For additional information, contact Odilo Mühling +49 89 1489-2698
In Brief MTU Aero Engines takes 18-percent share in the PurePower® PW1100G-JM engine program MTU Aero Engines has taken an 18-percent share in the PurePower® PW1100G-JM engine program which is currently being developed for the emerging Airbus A320neo aircraft family. This has been agreed between MTU, JAEC and Pratt & Whitney, the leading OEM partner company in this program. According to the agreement, MTU will also take on a portion of the final engine assembly and test of the PW1100G - a new role for MTU in a high-volume commercial engine program. "We are very proud to have succeeded in increasing our program share and taking on a major role in engine assembly. Our participation in the geared turbofan engine programs will be a major driver of future growth for MTU", said MTU CEO Egon Behle. The 18-percent share in the PW1100G-JM program for the A320neo aircraft family is three percent more than the previously agreed shares in the other PurePower® engine programs. In addition to the complete low-pressure turbine and the first four stages of the high-pressure compressor (HPC), MTU will provide the brush seals. Also new is a manufacturing portion of HPC nickel blisks. The portion of final engine assembly and test is also included in MTU's increased workshare. Furthermore, both partners have agreed to raise MTU's stake in the PW1500G engine program for Bombardier CSeries aircraft from 15 to 17 percent. MTU scores big at Le Bourget Blisks from TECT Power U.S. company TECT Power will deliver as many as 800 compressor blisks a year to MTU under a strategic agreement concluded for the term of ten years. MTU is among the world's most highly experienced blisk manufacturers and estimates its annual production volume at 4,000 of these integrally bladed disks. The components will be produced at MTU's plant in Munich and in the U.S., with every fifth blisk being supplied by TECT Power as part of the cooperative effort. The new Boeing 747-8 was one of the major attractions at this year's Paris Air Show. The aircraft is powered by GEnx engines. For MTU Aero Engines, this year's Paris Air Show was a huge success: In late June, MTU CEO Egon Behle reported that the company had bagged orders in the total amount of more than 600 million euros. "That's a figure that is twice as high as two years ago," explained Behle. Deals have been concluded for the PurePower® PW1000G geared-turbofan family, the GEnx engine powering the Boeing 747-8, and the popular V2500 for standard A320 jets. 52 Robert S. Cohen, President of TECT Power (left) talking to MTU COO Dr. Rainer Martens.
CF34s from Mexico A new agreement now concluded opens the door for MTU to expand into the Central and South American CF34-10 market: AeroMexico Connect has concluded an exclusive contract with MTU Maintenance Berlin-Brandenburg and will send all of its engines of this type--up to 37 propulsion systems in total--to the Ludwigsfelde-based company for MRO services. The agreement covers the engines powering the operator's current fleet of eight Embraer 190 regional jets, plus another nine of the twinjet it has on firm order. The deal will run until 2022 and be worth at least 57 million euros (79 million U.S. dollars) in revenues for MTU. Masthead Editor MTU Aero Engines GmbH Eckhard Zanger Senior Vice President Corporate Communications and Public Affairs Managing editor Torunn Siegler Tel. +49 89 1489-6626 Fax +49 89 1489-4303 firstname.lastname@example.org Editor in chief Martina Vollmuth Tel. +49 89 1489-5333 Fax +49 89 1489-8757 email@example.com Address MTU Aero Engines GmbH Dachauer Straße 665 80995 Munich o Germany www.mtu.de Realization Heidrun Moll Editorial staff Bernd Bundschu, Denis Dilba, Achim Figgen, Silke Hansen, Daniel Hautmann, Odilo Mühling, Andreas Spaeth, Martina Vollmuth The CF34-10 engines powering Aeromexico's Embraer 190 regional jets are maintained by MTU Maintenance Berlin-Brandenburg. MTU Maintenance Zhuhai and Skynet Asia Airways sign contract MTU Maintenance Zhuhai and Japanese Skynet Asia Airways (SNA) will be cooperating on the maintenance of CFM56-7 engines operated by the airline. A contract to this effect was inked by Toshio Kurokawa, General Manager, Maintenance and Engineering, SNA, and Holger Sindemann, President MTU Maintenance Zhuhai, at the Aviation Expo China in late September. The agreement now concluded runs for an initial five years; if renewed for another five years, it will cover the engines powering 13 Boeing 737NG jets that are currently going into service with the Japanese airline. Layout Manfred Deckert Sollnerstraße 73 81479 Munich o Germany Photo credits Cover Page: MTU Aero Engines Pages 2-3 Eurofighter GmbH; Fotolia; MTU Aero Engines Pages 4-5 AirTeamImages; MTU Aero Engines Pages 6-9 Air New Zealand; DHK; MTU Aero Engines Pages 10-13 Andreas Spaeth; Mitsubishi Aircraft Cooperation; MTU Aero Engines Pages 14-17 Bundesverband der Deutschen Luftund Raumfahrtindustrie e.V. (BDLI); Eurofighter GmbH; MTU Aero Engines Pages 18-21 GE - Aviation; Sikorsky Aircraft Cooperation; MTU Aero Engines Pages 22-25 Airbus, Bombardier; Clean Sky Joint Undertaking; Pratt & Whitney Pages 26-29 MTU Aero Engines Pages 30-33 MTU Aero Engines Pages 34-37 US Air Force; MTU Aero Engines Pages 38-41 MTU Aero Engines Pages 42-45 Commercial Aircraft Corporation of China (COMAC); Foster + Partners; Fotolia; MTU Aero Engines Pages 46-51 Deutsches Museum; MTU Aero Engines Pages 52-53 Aeromexico; Boeing; MTU Aero Engines eMagazine adaption WestWing Online GmbH Aidenbachstraße 54 81379 Munich o Germany Contributions credited to authors do not necessarily reflect the opinion of the editors. We will not be held responsible for unsolicited material. Reprinting of contributions is subject to the editors' approval. Signed a cooperation agreement: Toshio Kurokawa, General Manager, maintenance and engineering, SNA (left) and Holger Sindemann, President and CEO, MTU Maintenance Zhuhai New supplier from China MTU will soon use finished parts made in China to manufacture commercial engine components. At the Aviation Expo China in late September, Germany's leading engine manufacturer and Chinese company Xi'an Aero-Engine Plc. (XAE) concluded a deal for the supply of a total of 53 finished parts--rotating and stationary rings, disks, and small turned/milled parts--for use in the commercial engines V2500, GP7000, PW2000 and smaller Pratt & Whitney Canada engines. The first deliveries are scheduled to arrive at MTU in Munich early next year. The value of the procurement contracts is expected to increase to six million euros by 2016.
MTU Aero Engines Holding AG Dachauer Straße 665 80995 Munich o Germany Tel. +49 89 1489-0 Fax +49 89 1489-5500 firstname.lastname@example.org www.mtu.de